Only on this
website, not on any estate agent or council or community websites, is it
revealed that purchasers/leaseholders of residential Sovereign Harbour property must
pay a unique annual and increasingly expensive flood defence and harbour charge
averaging £265 a year in 2018 in addition to council taxes, property
insurance, management fees and ground rents. In no other flood area or
harbour or marina area or private estate anywhere else in Britain, the UK,
Europe or the world does this apply. A much wider flood zone area than just
Sovereign Harbour is involved, affecting more than 17,000 homes, yet the
Sovereign Harbour Trust, owned by The Wellcome Trust makes only the 4,300
Sovereign Harbour residents and their successors pay it, to the Environment
Agency, not businesses including managing agents and property developers. As
Members of Parliament and Eastbourne Borough and East Sussex County councillors
have refused to help right this wrong applicable uniquely and solely to
Sovereign Harbour residents, the matter has now been referred to overseas
agencies . A second unique covenant requires owners/leaseholders of 369
South Harbour properties in the water feature precinct to pay a further annual
charge of £328 in 2018. It is the only such water feature in the
world that applies such a charge to properties overlooking it.
Sovereign Harbour, Eastbourne, East Sussex, England; before buying or leasing or renting a property here
are not complying with legislation requiring them to show the full facts about expensive covenants and more unique to this area
By Keith A. Forbes
and his wife Lois Ann Forbes. Both disabled, they live in Eastbourne and write, administer and webmaster
this website. Keith is a member of the UK's The
Society of Authors and an activist for the elderly and disabled.
Two most recent pieces of
They are the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading
Regulations 2008 (CPRs) and the Business Protection from Misleading Marketing
Regulations 2008 (BPRs). The government took this step to reduce
duplicate legislation regulating
estate agents and other businesses involved in property sales and lettings. The
previous legislation, the Property Misdescriptions Act 1991 (PMA), which had made it a criminal offence for
estate agents to make false or misleading statements about properties being
offered for sale, was repealed on1 October 2013,
Estate agents and other
businesses involved in property sales and lettings should be aware that the 2008
Regulations now offer far more
protection to individuals against misleading sales particulars and advertising
than was the case earlier.
The CPRs prohibit all traders from using unfair
commercial practices in their dealings with individual consumers, and estate agents
in particular are prohibited from engaging in commercial practices
that are unfair to sellers, buyers, potential sellers or potential buyers of
residential property. The BPRs prohibit traders in all sectors, including estate
agents, from using misleading practices in their business-to-business
advertisements. This includes misleading marketing used to advertise property
for sale. While the PMA only covered estate agents, the CPRs and BPRs are much
wider in scope covering letting agents and property managers.
The CPRs prohibit misleading
actions that cause or are likely to cause the average consumer to take a
transactional decision he or she would not have taken otherwise. A
transactional decision is not just whether a consumer decides to purchase a
property but also includes such things as to whether to view a property in the
first place. A misleading action or omission includes omitting to
mention any deeds or covenants or restrictions unique to an area such as
those we alone in the UK, Europe and the world have to bear here in Sovereign
Harbour. We know beyond any doubt this has caused some consumers, after hearing
about the facts from present residents,
to neither want to view nor buy or rent
or lease any Sovereign Harbour property because of the extra costs and
conditions of the Estate Rent charge and other factors that nowhere else
Although the CPRs and BPRs have
now been in force since 2008, some are clearly still unfamiliar to many estate agents
and relevant others selling or leasing or renting properties and consumers. This prompted the Office of Fair Trading to publish
guidance specifically for estate agents on the new Regulations on what they need
to know in applying descriptions on a property. They have been
circulated and can be seen at https://www.businesscompanion.info/en/quick-guides/services/estate-agents-property-descriptions. There
is also now a specified Code of Practice for all residential Estate Agents and
relevant others. See it at https://www.tradingstandards.uk/media/documents/commercial/codes-of-practice/tpo-sales.pdf.
Thus, Estate agents
and relevant others
selling or leasing or renting properties to consumers need
to be particularly careful about how they advertise properties for sale or
lettings, and to make sure their particulars on properties are accurate.
Describing properties as ‘stunning’, ‘desirable’ or in a ‘quiet
area’ now require evidence to back up such statements.
Estate agents and relevant
selling or leasing or renting properties to consumers
particulars that contain misleading omissions are also liable by
the new Regulations. Agents who do not wish to be in contravention of the new
rules and regulations are now expected to make sure they have all their client
vendors or landlords check and sign off on the accuracy of their particulars.
Agents should also ensure their staff are trained on making certain their
particulars and advertising are compliant with the Regulations.
General disclaimers telling
buyers not to rely on details are not effective in preventing offences.
Estate agents and other
businesses involved in property sales and leasing or letting that
breach either the CPRs or BPRs risk prosecution by
their local authority trading standards services responsible for
enforcement by bringing criminal prosecutions. On conviction, agents can face
substantial fines or in more serious cases imprisonment.
Estate Agents and other
businesses involved in Sovereign Harbour property sales and lettings that ignore
the above include:
- Acorn, at http://propertypropertyproperty.co.uk/estate-letting-agents/Eastbourne/Acorn-Estate-Agents-Eastbourne
- Andrews, at https://andrewsonline.co.uk/branch/50.7679492/0.2842462
- Cavendish & Co, see http://www.cavendishandcoestateagents.co.uk/
- Eastbourne Lettings, at http://www.eastbournelettings.com/.
- Eastbourne Property Shop, at http://www.eastbournepropertyshop.co.uk/
- Freeman Forman, at http://www.freemanforman.co.uk/forsaleoffice/eastbourne/795/?utm_source=gmb&utm_medium=freemanforman&utm_campaign=795
- Fox & Sons, at https://www.fox-and-sons.co.uk/estate-agents/eastbourne?utm_source=GooglePlus&utm_medium=Social&utm_campaign=Sequence
- Ginger & Sanders, http://www.gssalesandlettings.com
- Leaders, at http://www.leaders.co.uk/branches/eastbourne
- Homes 4 Sale, at http://www.homes4sail.co.uk/.
- Leaper Stanbrook, at http://www.leaperstanbrook.co.uk/
- Oakfield, at http://www.oakfield-property.co.uk/
- Rager & Roberts, at http://www.ragerroberts.co.uk/
- Reid+Dean, at http://www.reiddean.com/
- Right Move, at http://www.rightmove.co.uk/property-for-sale/Sovereign-Harbour.html.
Seems to list them all.
- Sanders Property Management,
at Sanders Property
- Sovereign Harbour New Homes, See http://www.sovereignharbournewhomes.co.uk/ and
the pending new developments of Port Moresby Place, Macauley Place and
White Point, all either under construction or in the process of being
completed, some of which have already been sold off-plan.
- Taylor Engley, at http://www.taylor-engley.co.uk/
- Town Property, at http://town-property.com/
Also see local house and flat
prices at http://www.home.co.uk/guides/house_prices.htm?location=eastbourne.
fully with the 2008 CPRs and BPRs above, Estate Agents,
developers and property managers should be stating the following on all
Sovereign Harbour properties they market:
- If Freehold not Leasehold,
what type of freehold? It must be shown upfront if the property is being sold freehold in fee absolute with
possession or freehold but with Sovereign Harbour estate rental charge/harbour
charge and any other covenants applicable.
- If leasehold or not being sold freehold in fee absolute with
possession and not exempted from the following, the property will be subject to
Sovereign Harbour's annual Estate Rent Charge, otherwise known as the annual
"harbour charge.". It is not just a harbour charge but
so much more, a sea defence charge. There are 3,700+ homes in Sovereign
Harbour. Those who buy or lease or rent them - and their successors - no one else in Eastbourne, are required to pay
annually, not just once, for this Estate Rental Charge, in reality both a
flood defence scheme and harbour charge rolled into one. This
particular sea flood defence scheme extends from Sovereign Harbour
eastwards, and goes beyond it all the way to Cooden Beach, Bexhill about 7
miles away by sea. It must be noted by all present residents and
potential newcomers that this charge is unique to residents in this Sovereign Harbour area, occurs nowhere else in the UK or Europe or world; is nevertheless approved by the East
Sussex County Council and Eastbourne Borough Council; applies in 2018 at a
cost cost of nearly £260 per residential household irrespective of whether some properties are
worth only £180,000 or so and others as much as £850,000 or so. This
covenanted charge also applies to any future buyer of that property, but all
businesses in the same flood zone area in and beyond Sovereign Harbour are exempted. It is also the only place in the entire UK where, with the full
approval of The Wellcome Trust that owns Premier Marinas, its Sovereign
Harbour Trust collects the 2018 annual charge via a subsidiary and has a 25
year contract via a Pevensey company to undertake this work for the
Environment Agency. Nowhere else in the UK does the Environment
Agency make such a charge to taxpayers, only in the case of Sovereign
Harbour residents. Thus Sovereign Harbour residents alone pay the
Environment Agency twice, while other residents pay only once, via general
taxation, for similar Environment Agency work. Also, nowhere else in
the UK, only in Sovereign Harbour, do Premier Marinas, which also owns many
other harbours and marinas in the UK, levy this charge. (Had they known
about it fully beforehand from the material marketing information that was
not included but omitted about the Sovereign Harbour property they acquired
in November 2016, recent purchasers including writers of this
website would not have either gone to see or acquire any Sovereign Harbour
Sovereign Harbour residential properties affected by the Estate Rental
Charge are registered as such by the Sovereign Harbour Trust or its
subsidiary CIC with the Land Valuation Agency. Even with this Estate Rental
Charge occurring solely and uniquely within their jurisdiction, and meaning
that leasehold properties are thus covenanted in ways no other local
authority encounters, the Eastbourne County Council and Eastbourne Borough
Council do not have a similarly unique category of a lower council tax
applicable solely to Estate Rental Charge sufferers. It also needs to be
known that reputable legal
firms throughout the UK are telling potential buyers to beware of buying or
investing in property where such Estate Rent Charges and Rent Charges exist.
An East Sussex County Council and Eastbourne
Borough Council-approved Deed and Grant of Covenant requires as a condition of the sales
contract that purchasers of Sovereign Harbour flats or units (but not
the owners of the buildings or any others in the flood defence area), must pay. Yet a failure of the flood defence scheme anywhere along this length of
coast could possibly affect over 10,000 homes, far more than just in Sovereign
Harbour and cause damage to homeowners possibly amounting to billions of pounds.
No other harbour and marina in the UK or Europe or the world, only this
local community is required to pay for flood defences that go far beyond just this local
community. The cost of this scheme to owners does
not include flood insurance indemnity, Sovereign Harbour residents alone who pay the
cost do not get any insurance included with it. Recent Member of Parliament until June 8, 2017 Caroline
Ansell has gone public in stating her belief that the charge is grossly
- Current council tax cost and
banding and which local authorities are
involved (normally both Eastbourne Borough Council and East Sussex County
- If in Sovereign Harbour
South is the water feature charge applicable? If
so, how much at the time of offer? It will be in addition to normal water costs.
- Name of managing
agent of a leasehold property and - for leasehold premises - building owner, with current annual
charges for the unit and what additional charges are likely for the next
financial year. Also, other
purchasers of those leasehold properties should know about. They all have
different roles. Is there a leaseholders
association of that building or group of buildings? All leaseholders should become members, usually for a small annual cost. Why? For three
reasons. Members provide a common defence against matters such possible attempts
by managing agents or building owners to raise fees for new maintenance or
related works. When a leasehold association has 60 percent or more of its
occupants as members in good standing it has a legal right to challenge
arbitrary decisions. If that 60/% is not realized because not enough occupants
are current members, managing agents and/or the building's owners (who usually
appoint the managing agents) are legally entitled to proceed without such
blockage or interference. Only when a leasehold association reaches 60% of its
leasehold-holding owner-occupants does it have the power to demand a change of
managing agents. This has happened especially when either management charges and
additional maintenance expenses have been deemed excessive - unrealistically
high by the majority of members of the leaseholders association, or when the
managing agents and/or owners of buildings have been continuously
uncommunicative, or both. NB: Managing agents are appointed to collect annual or
semi-annual demands for management fees payable by leaseholders and to
maintain all lifts and common external areas of the building including the
exteriors of garages and parking spaces. But they do not get involved in
non-common areas. Leaseholders should also know that if their buildings have
lifts installed their management fees will be higher than buildings without
lifts, but leaseholders without their own garages will pay the same management
fee, not less, than leaseholders with garages, even when those without garages
have paid more for their properties than those with garages. Some managing
agents are more responsive than others in answering questions or handling
complaints. The owner of that building (landlord). When occupiers
seek, on an individual (non-common) basis, information about their flat, or make
any complaint, or have or create any damage or make any structural internal
changes to their flats, such as creating or changing rooms or walls or
partitions or bathrooms or showers they should probably copy managing agents
into but should make sure their submissions are addressed to the owners of
the buildings concerned.
- Energy coding for the
- Flood Zones for the
property concerned, for insurance purposes. North Harbour is in Zone 3,
South Harbour is in Zone 2.
- Present electricity supplier. Is
a smart meter?
- If it also has gas, the
present gas supplier.
- Water and waste water supplier
and whether or not the property is metered
- Restrictions if any in
leasing or subleasing or letting or short-term renting. Many
purchasers of Sovereign Harbour properties either do not read the fine print of
deeds they sign or ignore them. Many long
leases clearly stipulate that sub-letting or holiday renting is not allowed.
- Chancel repair liability.
Not applicable to or required for Sovereign Harbour. Prospective
purchasers need to know this in advance and, if they are from non-local
parts of the UK will need to let their solicitors or conveyance agents know.
If not, they could be charged for a service that is not relevant here.
Potential purchasers should beware of using any local restate agent
referrals for any non-local solicitor not aware of this fact.
Other factors estate agents
and others may want to mention:
- If sea or harbour or
countryside views are important Council taxes will often be significantly
higher than properties with an appreciably higher market value but paying less
in council taxes.
- Council Taxes. Some flats
in the Eastbourne and/or Sovereign Harbour area in buildings with garages or a shared one,
therefore with more space, but their owners pay the the same council taxes, not
more, than flats without garages even when residents of the latter have paid a
higher price for their flat than those with garages. The Councils concerned deem
this irrelevant. In most cases, all residents of one building pay the same
council taxes irrespective of whether some units have either more rooms or a
garage or share one in lieu. In view of this it is recommended that if more than
one unit in a building is for sale, with one offering a garage or a shared one
and the other does not, go for the one with a garage.
- Are shops, medical services
and buses or trains conveniently close?
- Cladding on a high-rise
building. If considering buying or leasing a flat in a high-rise building
that has had cladding installed, it is particularly important to determine to
your complete satisfaction that the cladding is of good quality, has passed all
required tests, is fire-resistant, not a potential fire-risk.
noise and porch or balcony privacy. Some Eastbourne or Sovereign Harbour flats have
wooden, not concrete, floors. Those with wooden floors mean that neighbours
below can expect more noise. Some flats also have their porches or
balconies adjacent to porches or balconies at other flats. This means less
privacy and more noise when both flats have people on their porches or balconies
at the same time. And in the summer, when you need more air but stay inside, you
will want your windows or doors open. But if people on the adjacent balcony or
porch in the neighbor's flat are making a noise, you may have to close your
window or door.
- Kitchens and washer-dryer
equipment. Many kitchens in Sovereign Harbour flats are smaller than in a
house, which means their appliances are also smaller. Persons used to doing a
large load of laundry and using a separate dryer will be dismayed by the small
size and capacity of many combined washing machines and dryers. Most flats were
kitchen-designed to be used for holidays, not year-round residence. Most
refrigerators are also smaller and a number are under-the-counter accessible as
separate small refrigerator and freezer units, instead of larger combined
- Hot water boilers. In
their best interests, newcomers purchasing or leasing Sovereign Harbour
freehold or leasehold residential homes need to find out from sellers
whether hot water boilers have been serviced regularly and when the next
service is due. If so, this should be a priority, to avoid a significant
expense in a boiler flooding by day or night, flooding the property, ruining
floors and carpets and possibly also affecting neighbors.
- Hanging out laundry to dry
may not be allowed under some leases. But why? It might be justified in
part where some properties are deemed exclusive and private and members of
the public are not allowed to pass by. But they cannot be justified in
properties where, such as in Sovereign Harbour, walkways and paths are not
exclusive because they allow any and all members of the public who are not
Sovereign Harbour residents to cycle or stroll or walk by and on the
beachside, bring their dogs. If they are allowed and dogs can leave their
messes for hours or days without being picked up by owners then surely
Sovereign Harbour freeholders and leaseholders should not be prevented from
hanging out their laundry to dry for just a few hours.
- Renters will be required
to pay, in addition to their monthly rent, an upfront deposit amounting to up to
two months rent, get estate-agency approved contents insurance and more. If from
abroad, or with insufficient monthly income for a monthly rent but with provable
sufficient savings, there is a way out. Renters can elect to pay in advance for
the first six months of their rental tenancy. Most rental agreements appear to
be for an initial six month period.
- Leasing or subleasing or
renting your property. The
great majority of Sovereign Harbour North and South apartments or flats
are not allowed under the terms of their leases to sublease or rent
or short-term rent their properties as holiday homes. But some leaseholders
in certain buildings have either ignored this or have obtained special
permission to do so.
- Some buildings with flats may
have just one electricity supplier, picked by the building's owner, not
owner of the flat. It may not always be possible to select or change an
- Is the property centrally
heated? Many flats in Sovereign Harbour are not, are instead
individually room-heated by radiators. If some have both gas and electricity
this should be stated.
- For a family with more than
one car is there assigned parking for more than one vehicle?
- If there is assigned parking,
is the parking covered or in the open on or underneath and conveniently near to
the property? Potential buyers or renters or lessees need to look at the parking
beforehand to see if the parking space is big enough for their vehicle and if it
can be accessed without difficulty.
- Are certain types of vehicles
such as vans or trucks not permitted to park on the property?
Assigned? In a specified area, with number of spaces. In a garage or undercroft area?
- If you or a member of your
family are disabled and have a Blue Badge, is there assigned disabled parking
there, wider than normal parking?
- If a member of a household
is severely disabled is there a separate bedroom and a bathroom available that
might qualify for a council tax one-band disability reduction?
- If a member of the household
is mobility-impaired and cannot climb stairs, is there a lift in the
- Wardrobes, cupboards and
storage areas. Should be specified, per room. Particularly important for some newcomers. Many Sovereign Harbour
flats have two bedrooms but few have adequate cupboard or wardrobe space for two
people, often barely enough in those two bedrooms for one person. Some have no
built-in cupboard spaces at all. Many flats appear to have been constructed for part-time or
holiday use, not full-time year-round, use.
- After agreeing in principle to
buy but before legally committing to long-lease or purchase it is recommended you use a local chartered surveyor to give you (a)
a written report on the condition of the property; (b) an unbiased present
valuation of the property; and (c) an indication of any planning that
might be in progress or applied for that might affect your views. It will cost
you £450 or more to have this survey report made but it will be money well
spent. If the chartered surveyor's valuation of that property is noticeably less
than the estate agent's and seller's price for that property, you have the right
to demand a lower price to match what the surveyor suggests, or cancel your
interest. It could be well worth it to you to cancel as there is now somewhat of
a glut in available flats.
- When you have decided to buy
(or sell) a Sovereign Harbour property, it is particularly suggested you use an
Eastbourne-based solicitor. If you instead use one from other parts of the
UK where this area is largely unknown you might get hit with certain charges,
for example a chancel repair liability or search or payment, that do not not
apply here, and/or incur other delays in completing the transaction. Many
newcomers not from this area have had this problem and should not pay for any
such chancel charges. A local solicitor will or should know immediately there is
no chancel repair cost or charge or liability or need for chancel liability
insurance in the Sovereign Harbour area which did not exist when chancel costs
Martello Tower 64.
Photo cc Keith and Lois Forbes
Beware of Places with an
Estate Rent Charge (like Sovereign Harbour)
So say various law firms and
- All You Need to Know about
Covenants. See https://www.land-registry-documents.co.uk/news-blog/covenantswhat-you-need-to-know-about/
- Beware of Rentcharges.
- Beware the Rentcharge Scam,
perfectly legal. See http://www.cluttoncox.co.uk/site/blog/conveyancingblog/rentcharge_trap_cost_thousands_bristol.html
- Complicated Lease situation
involving a variable rent charge. See https://www.fpra.org.uk/qa/complicated-lease-situation-involving-variable-estate-rent-charge.
Of particular significance, from the Federation of Private Resident
- Can you ever be required to
pay a yearly rent on a freehold house? See http://www.fridaysmove.com/property-law-blog/fridays-blogger/26/08/2011/are-you-required-pay-yearly-rent-freehold-house
- Estate Rentcharges; an
effective but unpopular means of collecting freehold service charges.
What is especially significant is that in those few other places in the UK
where there are Estate Rent charges, they are very low compared to the
amount Sovereign Harbour residents have to pay.
- Estate Rent Charges, beware
when buying freehold homes on private estates. See http://www.solegal.co.uk/estate-rent-charges-beware-buying-freehold-homes-private-estates/.
What is particularly good to note is that this firm covers Eastbourne,
Brighton and Uckfield. For being the only local legal firm to highlight
this in this way, they are commended.
- Estate Rent Charges, the
new Registration Requirements. See https://www.blakemorgan.co.uk/news-events/news/estate-rent-charges/
- Freehold with fee simple.
The highest form of freehold, meaning no Estate Rent Charge, no leasehold,
no management fees, in short no reasons why the property should not pass on
to beneficiaries indefinitely. 99%, if not 100%, of the relatively few
supposedly freehold properties in Sovereign Harbour are not freehold in fee
- Freehold with Fee Simple
Absolute in Possession. See http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/fee-simple-absolute-in-possession.html.
As above. Hardly any, if any at all, Sovereign Harbour properties are in
- Freehold, Leasehold &
Commonhold. See http://www.propertyinvestmentproject.co.uk/blog/freehold-and-leasehold/
- Freehold v. Leasehold:
what's the Difference?. See https://www.moneyadviceservice.org.uk/en/articles/leasehold-or-freehold-financial-implications#what-is-a-freehold
- Government Reduces Ground
Rents on Leasehold New Build Properties in England. See http://www.fosters-solicitors.co.uk/news/business-and-commercial/government-reduces-ground-rents-on-leasehold-newbuild-proper/702
- Government to Act on
Leasehold Ripoffs. See http://www.telegraph.co.uk/money/consumer-affairs/government-act-leasehold-rip-offs/
- Government to Ban Leasehold
Houses and set Ground Rents as Low as Zero. See https://www.leaseholdknowledge.com/government-ban-leasehold-houses-set-ground-rents-low-zero
- Guidance re Rentcharges.
- Hornet: NO to fleecehold!
In a reference to any place with an Estate Rent Charge.
- How to Avoid the Rentcharge
Scam. See https://social.luptonfawcett.com/blog/how-avoid-rentcharge-scam.
- Land Law: Rent Charges.
- Local Government
Organization and Making a Complaint. See https://www.lgo.org.uk/make-a-complaint/top-tips-for-making-a-complaint
- Leasehold law reform
changes plans. See https://www.lease-advice.org/news-item/leasehold-included-law-commissions-13th-programme-law-reform/?dm_i=OUE,5D7L5,Q8IWGN,KQUMY,1
- New build Houses, the
demise of the Leasehold. See https://www.womblebonddickinson.com/uk/insights/articles-and-briefings/new-build-houses-demise-leasehold-and-what-comes-next
- Positive Covenants. See
- Property Investors Alerted
following Rent Charges Case. See https://www.wrigleys.co.uk/news/property/property-investors-alerted-following-recent-case-on-rentcharges/
- Rent Charges: Draconian
Rights Back With a Vengeance. See http://www.duttongregory.co.uk/site/blog/rentcharges_draconian_rights_back_with_a_vengeance
- Real Estate Tip of the
Week: Revenge of the Rent Charge. See https://www.dacbeachcroft.com/en/gb/articles/2017/january/real-estate-tip-of-the-week-revenge-of-the-rentcharge/
- Rent Charge Indemnity
Insurance. See http://www.lawsureinsurance.co.uk/our-products/title-protection/rent-charge/
- Rent Charge. See https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rentcharge
- Rent Charges and the
Dangers of Overlooking Them. See http://www.readroper.co.uk/blog/2016/10/21/rentcharges-and-the-danger-of-overlooking-them/#.WmG70Y0iE5t
- Rent Charge Risks. See https://www.penningtons.co.uk/news-publications/latest-news/2017/roberts-v-lawton-rentcharge-risks/
- Rentcharges Act 1977.
- Rentcharges in a Nutshell.
- Rentcharges, What are They,
How do They Work and Can They Be Terminated? See http://www.matrix-legal.com/site/blog/commercial-property/rentcharges
- Stamp Duty Land Tax at the
Start of the Lease. See https://www.bsdr.com/publication/stamp-duty-land-tax-at-the-start-of-the-lease/
- What Are the Rights and
Implications of Estate Rentcharges? See https://uk.practicallaw.thomsonreuters.com/4-517-2268?transitionType=Default&contextData=(sc.Default)&firstPage=true&bhcp=1
- What is a Rent Charge? See
- What is Freehold? See https://thelawdictionary.org/freehold/
- What's The Problem? Rent
Charges. See https://www.burnetts.co.uk/publications/factsheets/whats-the-problem-rentcharges
- What we need to know about
Rent Charges. See http://www.hip-consultant.co.uk/blog/convenants-rentcharges-123/
- Who has to pay the Rent
Charge. See https://www.gov.uk/guidance/rentcharges#who-has-to-pay-the-rentcharge
Keith also writes
administered and web-mastered by
Keith A. Forbes
and Lois A Forbes at firstname.lastname@example.org
© 2018. Revised: November 2, 2018